Category Archives: breeding problems

Vulval Conformation and Caslick’s Procedure

Posted: | November 2, 2021

Vulval Conformation, Common Vulval Injuries and the Caslick’s Procedure – Vulval Conformation and the Caslick’s Procedure are important aspects to consider, especially when breeding older multiparous mares By Jonathan F Pycock, BVetMed, PhD, DESM, MRCVS, RCVS Specialist in Equine Reproduction In the normal mare the vulva provides the first effective barrier to protect the uterus from ascending infection.… Read More »

Contagious Equine Metritis – CEM

Posted: | October 31, 2021

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) – A notifiable disease, Contagious Equine Metritis poses a significant threat for domestic breeders and international trade. By Jos Mottershead and Kathy St. Martin History In the spring of 1977 a previously unidentified genital infection of the equine was observed in the United Kingdom and Ireland in Thoroughbreds. Mares were being found not pregnant… Read More »

Equine Viral Arteritis

Posted: | October 22, 2021

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) – a detailed and descriptive article about equine viral arteritis (EVA), a disease which has severe negative reproductive implications. By: Kathy St.Martina, Jos Mottersheada, Dr. Peter Timoneyb LLC, Wynnewood, OK 73098, USA; bDepartment of Veterinary Science, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is not a… Read More »

Uterine Cytology Diagnostics in the Mare Explained

Posted: | March 14, 2021

Why Perform a Cytology Smear in Conjunction with a Uterine Culture? – The importance of uterine cytology evaluation supporting the culture results is explained. By Jos Mottershead Most stallion owners require a “clean uterine culture” from a mare prior to breeding her live cover or in some cases shipping semen to her; many mare owners also reference the… Read More »

When Progestin Therapy Doesn’t Work

Posted: | February 9, 2021

I gave my mare Progesterone (or Altrenogest), but it didn’t work! – an explanation of some of the causes of failure of promotion of estrus and other problems. By Jos Mottershead Progesterone or the synthetic progestin analogue altrenogest (Regumate1) is commonly used in the mare to cause her to enter estrus (come in to “heat”) at an appropriate time. It does this by suppressing estrus… Read More »

Ventral Rupture in the Pregnant Mare

Posted: | February 3, 2021

Late Term Pregnancy Problems in the Mare – Ventral Rupture in the Mare – A late-term mare presents with ventral oedema and obvious discomfort. What is the diagnosis and treatment? By Jonathan F Pycock, BVetMed, PhD, DESM, MRCVS, RCVS Specialist in Equine Reproduction First Published in UK VET 8;3, April 2003 The 19-year-old multiparous pregnant Percheron mare illustrated… Read More »

Double Trouble – The Twin Dilemma

Posted: | February 3, 2021

Managing Twinning in the Mare – While most equine pregnancies are simple, twinning when it happens is an issue. Here we discuss managing twinning in the mare. By Jos Mottershead and Kathy St. Martin You’ve read all the articles at, your mare was in heat, you jumped through all the various hoops you needed to in order… Read More »

The Oxytocin Protocol!

Posted: | February 1, 2021

Oxytocin use in the mare during breeding – Delayed Uterine Clearance and Breeding-Induced Endometritis problems can be helped by Oxytocin use when breeding a mare! By Jos Mottershead Oxytocin acts on smooth muscle in the body, causing it to contract. One such area of tissue, which is of tremendous importance relative to breeding, is the mare’s uterus and… Read More »

Abortion in the Mare – Some Pointers

Posted: | February 1, 2021

Late Term and Habitual Abortion in the Mare – Pregnancy loss in the mare is a constant source of concern among breeders. Here some common causes are discussed. By Jos Mottershead Late term and habitual abortion in the mare is a constant source of concern among breeders. It may be as a result of identifiable repetitious causes, or… Read More »